Merkle tree JavaScript

Javascript package 'merkle-trees' - Package Galax

The javascript package 'merkle-trees' has been updated June 13, 2021 12:00 AM Get all information about this package! Package Galaxy. Package Galaxy / Javascript / merkle-trees. npm package 'merkle-trees' Popularity: Low Description: js and solidity suite for compact multi-proof appendable Merkle trees. Installation: npm install merkle-trees Last version: 0.2.3 Homepage: https://github.com. Merkle Patricia Trees are the fundamental data structure on which Ethereum is built. In this tutorial, we will explore the inner workings of Ethereum's Merkle Patricia Trees, using follow-along examples written in JavaScript. This tutorial uses the excellent merkle-patricia-tree library built by the ethereumjs team const {MerkleTree } = require ('merkletreejs') const SHA256 = require ('crypto-js/sha256') const leaves = ['a', 'b', 'c']. map (x => SHA256 (x)) const tree = new MerkleTree (leaves, SHA256) const root = tree. getRoot (). toString ('hex') const leaf = SHA256 ('a') const proof = tree. getProof (leaf) console. log (tree. verify (proof, leaf, root)) // true const badLeaves = ['a', 'x', 'c']. map (x => SHA256 (x)) const badTree = new MerkleTree (badLeaves, SHA256) const badLeaf.

Ethereum's Merkle Patricia Trees - Rockwater We

Construct Merkle Trees and verify proofs in JavaScript

JavaScript tools for creating Merkle trees, generating

Merkletree.js - Construct Merkle Trees and verify proofs ..

  1. Merkle trees provide two characteristics that provide the backbone for the security and usability of the Bitcoin Network. Merkle trees add to the ability for transactions to be tamper proof in the network because all transactions are calculated together into the Merkle root meaning that if any transactions inside the Merkle tree is changed the Merkle root value will change reflecting any.
  2. Merkle tree also known as hash tree is a data structure used for data verification and synchronization. It is a tree data structure where each non-leaf node is a hash of it's child nodes. All the leaf nodes are at the same depth and are as far left as possible. It maintains data integrity and uses hash functions for this purpose
  3. merkle-btree is compiled as a collection of CommonJS modules & ES2015 modules for bundlers that support the jsnext:main or module field in package.json (Rollup, Webpack 2) The merkle-btree package includes precompiled production and development UMD builds in the dist folder. They can be used directly without a bundler and are thus compatible with many popular JavaScript module loaders and environments. You can drop a UMD build as
  4. In this video I take a look into how Bitcoin internally uses Merkle trees to generate it's block Merkle roots. We delve into how this is computed and why it We delve into how this is computed.

Creation and verification of a Merkle tree for a WireTransaction. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merkle_tree. Transaction is split into following blocks: inputs, attachments' refs, outputs, commands, notary, signers, tx type, time-window. Merkle Tree is kept in a recursive data structure. Building is done bottom up, from all leaves' hashes. If number of leaves is not a power of two, the tree is padded with zero hashes Now coming back to the merkle tree, data blocks are grouped in pairs and the hash of each of these blocks is stored in a parent node.The parent nodes are in turn grouped in pairs and their hashes stored one level up the tree. This continues all the way up the tree until we reach the root node. If an adversary tampers with some data block at the bottom of the tree that will cause the hash. Both Merkle trees and blockchains are data structures used in cryptography to verify information, but the specific goals and underlying principles are different; in fact, one is often used to form another (more on that below). Each can be viewed a.. We will now compute a Merkle proof... In this video we expand on the previous one where we computed a given list of transactions Merkle root using Merkle trees

Javascript package 'merkle-patricia-tree' - Package Galax

  1. Create our tree with the build method. The build method completes the creation of our Merkle Tree where it will recursively call itself until a single node is left, the root. Whilst in the process, the sequence of nodes are paired from leaves and internal nodes (i.e. branch) to instantiate our Branch case class
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  3. Merkle Tools is an open source software project. JavaScript tools for creating Merkle trees, generating merkle proofs, and verification of merkle proofs.
  4. Bitcoin Internals: How Blocks use Merkle Trees in JavaScript - bitcoin-merkle-tree.js. Skip to content. All gists Back to GitHub. Sign in Sign up Instantly share code, notes, and snippets. eddmann / bitcoin-merkle-tree.js. Last active Mar 13, 2018. Star 0 Fork 2 Code Revisions 2 Forks 2. Embed.
  5. d you cannot use JavaScript numbers that way. You will need the left and right to be strings

Construct Merkle Trees and verify proofs in JavaScript. Merkletree ⭐ 245. A Merkle Tree implementation written in Go. Iavl ⭐ 209. Merkleized IAVL+ Tree implementation in Go. Blockchain Java ⭐ 166. A simplified blockchain implementation in Java. Auth Adt ⭐ 150. Authenticated Data Structures Generically. Merkle Tree ⭐ 130. Merkle Trees and Merkle Inclusion Proofs. Coniks Go ⭐. Merkle trees have three major benefits: 1. They provide a means to prove the integrity and validity of data. 2. They require little memory or disk space as the proofs are computationally easy and fast. 3. Their proofs and management only require tiny amounts of information to be transmitted across networks Set root of tree as a cookie (automatically sent with every HTTP request) Maintain mapping of (root => builtBundle) so diff'ing tree is memoized JS and Deliver

GitHub - Tierion/merkle-tools: JavaScript tools for

A Merkle tree is typically a binary tree in which each leaf represents the hashed value of the record associated with that leaf. The branches are the hash of the concatenated hashes of the two children. This process of re-hashing the concatenation of the child nodes to create the parent node is performed until the top of the tree is reached, called the root hash Sparse Merkle Trees. First, let me introduce Sparse Merkle Trees. These are Merkle Trees except that they have only sparsely populated child nodes at potentially extreme depths. So for instance, one can imagine a Merkle tree with depth 256. Such a tree will have 2²⁵⁶ leaf nodes, more than the number of subatomic particles in the visible. Thesis: Merkle trees allow the full node to convince the thin nodes of this efficiently, preventing the full node from changing t into t' (which would allow a full node to trick a thin node into thinking it got paid). Proof: Let r denote the Merkle root in H. The thin node has that same H and r. The full node has the interior nodes under r cached (recall Step 3 from the full node). The full.

EthereumJS Your Javascript Gateway to Ethereu

Using a Merkle tree is preferable over a hash chain or a hash of concatenated transactions because it allows for a much quicker and simpler test of whether a particular transaction is included in the set. For more details, see the section on Merkle trees in the Developer's Guide. Share . Improve this answer. Follow edited Oct 13 '16 at 18:38. answered Oct 11 '16 at 17:39. Jestin Jestin. 8,634. merkletreejs - Construct Merkle Trees and verify proofs in JavaScript. #opensource. Home; Open Source Projects; Featured Post; Tech Stack; Write For Us; We have collection of more than 1 Million open source products ranging from Enterprise product to small libraries in all platforms. We aggregate information from all open source repositories. Search and find the best for your needs. Check out. This includes an addition of 5 new opcodes in EVM and modification to the global state Merkle tree. Veeva Systems. Intern Software Engineer. May 2017 - Apr 2018 | Toronto, ON • Designed and programmed a data model provision framework for data model update using Spring framework. • Implemented a web application for importing and maintaining dictionary terms from zip files to databases. Merkle trees are a data structure from which you can derive the same hash as we had indicated before. A property of merkle trees is that any change in the leaf node layer would result in a completely different merkle root hash. We can therefore use this data structure to verify the integrity of a set of data. Calculating a merkle root from the command line. Let's go through the steps required. Collects items (byte arrays) and builds a Merkle tree. Builder(Builder) - Constructor for class io.crums.util.mrkl.Builder. Copy constructor. Builder(String) - Constructor for class io.crums.util.mrkl.Builder. Creates a new copy-on-write (copy-on-add) instance with a dedicated MessageDigest using the given hashing algorithm. Builder(String, boolean) - Constructor for class io.crums.util.mrkl.

If you are worried about ensuring that the tree remains balanced or that the height remains logarithmic in the number of nodes, you can use any of the standard schemes for balanced binary trees: e.g., AVL trees, red-black trees, splay trees, 2-3 trees, and so on. You can use any of them with a Merkle tree. The balanced binary tree data structure describes how you modify the tree on each. There are also plenty of other things going on in the land of Ethereum JavaScript, including: libraries of wallet utilities. tools to generate, import, and export Ethereum keys. an implementation of the merkle-patricia-tree - a data structure outlined in the Ethereum yellow paper. Dig in to whatever interests you most over at the EthereumJS rep Merkle Schweisstechnik Shop - Der Shop rund um Schweißen, Schneiden, Trennen für Profis und Heimanwender. Unser Merkle Schweißtechnik Shop bietet eine große Produktauswahl & schnellen Versand. Kompetente Kundenhotline. Unsere Marken: Merkle, 3m, Abicor Binzel, Conzelmann, Air Liquide, CEPPO, Kemper, as Schwalbe Technik uvm Merkle-trees employ cryptography to efficiently preserve data consistency across peer-to-peer networks and distributed systems. Pymerkle provides a class for binary balanced Merkle-trees (with possibly odd number of leaves), capable of generating Merkle-proofs (audit and consistency proofs) along with performing inclusion-tests. It supports almost all combinations of hash functions (including. Transactions in Bitcoin are grouped into blocks that get linked into a Merkle tree. Every validated block contains a proof-of-work (PoW) that is solved by the miners. Each PoW is a number that, when added to the block's contents, causes the block's hash to satisfy a few criteria. Currently, the main criteria is that the hash, in numerical.

Understanding and designing how the merkle tree would work was our biggest challenge. Getting used to the AWS Console tools for debugging purposes took some time. Designing a hashing protocol that would never hash the exact same thing twice was harder than expected. Figuring out the appropriate measures to benchmark our system was not obvious . 1. 3. 2. 4. Future work. Well-documented command. Merkle tree is a kind of inverted tree structure with the root (known as the Merkle root) at the top and the leaves at the bottom. See the example below. This data structure is used in the bitcoin. In this video series, we are going understand Merkle tree, how it is working by building it from scratch (in JavaScript). We will see how Merkle tree is used in Git by building a very minimal git version from scratch. At the end of this course, we will also see how this algorithm is used in Bitcoin, DynamoDb as well Node.js module implementing Merkle tree algorithm. Awesome Open Source. Awesome Open Source. Merkle. Node.js module implementing Merkle tree algorithm. Stars. 123. License. mit. Open Issues. 3. Most Recent Commit. 5 years ago. Related Projects. javascript (70,346) crypto (243) tree (181) hash (127) md5 (41) sha1 (32) sha256 (30) Repo. Merkle . Builds a Merkle tree using either sha512, sha256.

Blockchain Merkle Trees - Tutorial And Exampl

GitHub - miguelmota/merkletreejs: Construct Merkle Trees

Abstract. We present a technique for Merkle tree traversal which requires only logarithmic space and time. For a tree with N leaves, our algorithm computes sequential tree leaves and authentication path data in time 2 log 2 (N) and space less than 3 log 2 (N), where the units of computation are hash function evaluations or leaf value computations, and the units of space are the number of node. @rainblock/merkle-patricia-tree is an in-memory merkle tree which conforms to the specifications of the modified merkle patricia tree used by Ethereum. It is a fork of the EthereumJS library, and released under the same license, however, the API has changed to be synchronous instead of callback based. The goals of @rainblock/merkle-patricia. A Merkle tree is just an efficient way to prove that something is in a set, without having to store the set. Each non leaf node of a Merkle tree is just the hash of the concatenation of it's children. Each of the leaves are the set we want to prov.. One-time signatures revisited: Practical fast signatures using fractal merkle tree traversal. In: IEEE - 24th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, pp. 255-259 (2006) Google Scholar. 12. Shor, P.W.: Algorithms for quantum computation: Discrete logarithms and factoring. In: Proc. 35th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, pp. 124-134. IEEE Computer.

Welcome to an extensive guide on programming Bitcoin with Javascript! In this guide we will explain how to create various types of Bitcoin transactions using the BitcoinJS library. Read More. protocol. Calculating the Merkle Root for a block. by Gr0kchain. This tutorial is written to simplify the understanding of how bitcoin uses merkle trees for verification of transaction into a block. A. k-ary tree in Data Structure. In this section we will see what is the K-ary tree. The K-ary tree is a rooted tree, where each node can hold at most k number of children. If the value of k is 2, then this is known as binary tree. The binary tree, or ternary trees are some specialized k-ary trees. So k-ary trees re generalized The generated Merkle tree is public data that is needed by the participants to proove the existence of the encoded stamp in the Merkle root node that is stored in the smart contract. This is done by calculating a proof path for each stamp that consists of the oponent nodes along the way to the root node. This proof path is then submitted along with the claimed stamp data to a verification. The key that enables its such high performance is its novel consensus mechanism based on the Tree-Graph (TG) blockchain structure. In this testnet release, the main features include: The Tree-Graph based consensus mechanism; The account state store with Merkle-Tree based authentication; The Javascript and JsonRpc API for fullnode interactio

Merkle Trees. Merkle trees are binary trees of hashes. Merkle trees in bitcoin use a double SHA-256, the SHA-256 hash of the SHA-256 hash of something. If, when forming a row in the tree (other than the root of the tree), it would have an odd number of elements, the final double-hash is duplicated to ensure that the row has an even number of hashes. First form the bottom row of the tree with. Merkle Trees. Merkle tree is a data structure that is useful when it comes to doing secure data verification in a large data pool. Both Bitcoin and Ethereum utilize Merkle trees to solve many technological barriers when storing and accessing data in an open network. Any centralized network does not have to worry about storing and accessing data as there is only one source for both accessing. A Merkle tree is a tree data structure in which each leaf node represents a hash of a data block. Each non-leaf node is a hash of its child nodes. Commonly used in blockchains, a Merkle tree enables efficient verification of large datasets with an audit proof mechanism. For more information about Merkle trees, see the Merkle tree Wikipedia page. To learn more about Merkle audit proofs and for. Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love. Build your family tree online ; Share photos and videos ; Smart Matching™ technology ; Free! Get Started. Laura E. Courtot: Birthdate: estimated between 1920 and 1980 : Death: Immediate Family: Daughter of Robert E Courtot and Silverbelle Hale Sister of Martha J Courtot; Roberta Courtot and Private . Managed by: Roberta. Listen to MERKLE TREE SOUND CLOUD | SoundCloud is an audio platform that lets you listen to what you love and share the sounds you create.. 2 Tracks. 1 Followers. Stream Tracks and Playlists from MERKLE TREE SOUND CLOUD on your desktop or mobile device

Merkle Trees provide a solution that provide time and space savings for nodes on the network. By creating a Merkle Tree out of the transaction data in each block, transactions can be audited in logarithmic time instead of linear time. Additionally, it opens the door for some bitcoin clients can save space by only storing the root of the Merkle. Ask questions Merkle tree function (in JavaScript) only allows strings Motivation. Currently, the JavaScript-land function MerkleTree/constructor is expecting that input data will always be provided as variable-length strings. It then appropriately hashes them to fixed-length Buffers, and processes from there. By filtering each input this way, it limits the domain of the function and.

I think that every child at school should read the Satoshi Nakamoto paper. In the paper, Satoshi lays out a more trusted world, and at its core is the usage of Merkle Trees. With this we create The Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is a concept I run into over-and-over again; which is, perhaps, somewhat ironic.. A DAG is a representation of vertices (nodes) that are connected by directional edges (arcs—i.e., lines) in such a way that there are no cycles (e.g., starting at Node A, you shouldn't be able to return to Node A).. DAGs have lots of uses in computer science problems and in. Merkle-DAGs can only be constructed from the leaves, that is, from nodes without children. Parents are added after children because the children's identifiers must be computed in advance to be able to link them. Every node in a Merkle-DAG is the root of a (sub)Merkle-DAG itself, and this subgraph is contained in the parent DAG[9] Merkle trees are used extensively by SPV nodes. SPV nodes don't have all transactions and do not download full blocks, just block headers. In order to verify that a transaction is included in a block, without having to download all the transactions in the block, they use an authentication path, or a merkle path

The above image shows a binary Merkle tree in which every non-leaf node is labelled with the hash of the labels or values (in case of leaves) of its child nodes. Hash trees/merkle tree allow efficient and secure verification of the contents of lar.. The best way to understand blockchain is to build one. Spenser Huang. Dec 27, 2017 · 8 min read. In this Part 1 of the Javascript Blockchain Series, we will cover the block object and blockchain. Read the Docs v: latest . Versions latest Downloads html On Read the Docs Project Home Builds Free document hosting provided by Read the Docs.Read the Docs Comment on attachment 8841638 Bug 1342974 - Add code to generate a Merkle tree summary of a release This patch augments generate-checksums.py so that it also builds a Merkle tree on the checksums it finds. It then writes a SHAXXXSUMMARY file containing (1) the tree head and (2) an inclusion proof for each file. rail, catlee: Does this look like the right direction to be headed

Merkle Trees: What They Are and the Problems They Solv

Javascript implementation of merkle trees. hash trees cryptography. 0.6.0 • Published 4 years ago @razor-network/merkle. Javascript implementation of merkle trees, compatible with solidity. hash trees cryptography. 0.6.0 • Published 2 years ago. contact@npm.io. An implementation of the modified merkle patricia tree used in Ethereum, optimized for in-memory usage. Keywords. merkle. radix. trie. ethereum. Publisher. no2chem. published 5.0.0 • 2 years ago Partial Merkle Tree is a minimal tree needed to check that a given set of leaves belongs to a full Merkle Tree. Example of Merkle tree with 5 leaves. h15 / \ h14 h55 / \ / \ h12 h34 h50 h00 / \ / \ / \ / \ l1 l2 l3 l4 l5 0 0 0. l* denote hashes of leaves, h* - hashes of nodes below. 0 denotes zero hash, we use it to pad not full binary trees, so the number of leaves is always a power of 2. Merkle Audit Paths A Merkle audit path for a leaf in a Merkle Hash Tree is the shortest list of additional nodes in the Merkle Tree required to compute the Merkle Tree Hash for that tree. Each node in the tree is either a leaf node or is computed from the two nodes immediately below it (i.e., towards the leaves). At each step up the tree (towards the root), a node from the audit path is.

An example of Merkle tree

Bitcoin Internals: Verifying Merkle Roots using Merkle Proofs in JavaScript - bitcoin-merkle-proofs.js. Skip to content. All gists Back to GitHub. Sign in Sign up Instantly share code, notes, and snippets. eddmann / bitcoin-merkle-proofs.js. Created Nov 10, 2017. Star 3 Fork 2 Code Revisions 1 Stars 2 Forks 2. Embed. What would you like to do? Embed Embed this gist in your website. Share Copy. A Merkle tree is a structure where each node is labeled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of all the nodes under it. As you read earlier, we use cloud file storage to persist content Files for merkle-tree, version 0.2; Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes; Filename, size merkle-tree-.2.tar.gz (1.4 kB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Mar 27, 2015 Hashes Vie Merkle Tree is based on hashing to the root to provide an efficient digital signature. If the leaves just contain a single data then the parents cannot contain the hash of both children and the combined hash in a simple node design. This can complicate the structure and programming so that the last parents must contain the hash of their children and their combined hashes, too. You can design. The latest Tweets from Crystal Ball Research (@Merkle_Trees): The world's 4th largest asset manager of $2.4 trillion assets, Fidelity Investments that provides fund distribution, retirement services, life insurance, wealth management among other services is going to launch crypto products before this year ends as per its CEO Abigail Johnso

Chain of digital signatures | Download Scientific Diagram

Length extension attacks, Merkle-Damgård constructions, and HMACs. The wikipedia page for Length Extension Attacks says Note that since HMAC doesn't use [Merkle-Damgård constructions], HMAC hashes are not prone to length extension attacks. However, HMACs can be constructed with hashing algorithms such as MD-5, SHA-1, and SHA-256 which. A Hash Tree or Merkle Tree is a tree in which every non-leaf node is labelled with the hash of the labels of its children nodes. Hash trees are useful because they allow efficient and secure verification of the contents of larger data structures. Hash trees can be used to verify any kind of data stored, handled and transferred in and between computers. Wikipedia] Merkle Trees are amazing.

Merkle Trees and Bitcoin - YourDevOpsGu

Blockchain Tutorial. Blockchain Tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of blockchain. Blockchain is a constantly growing ledger that keeps a permanent record of all the transactions that have taken place in a secure, chronological, and immutable way. It can be used for the secure transfer of money, property, contracts, etc. without requiring a third-party intermediary such as bank or. Napkin Problem 9: Inverted Index Performance and Merkle Tree Syncronization. Jun 2020. This is an edition of the Napkin Math newsletter , a newsletter about using napkin math and first-principle thinking to estimate the performance of systems. You can subscribe through email. Napkin friends, from near and far, it's time for another napkin. Construct Merkle Trees and verify proofs - 0.0.6 - a JavaScript package on npm - Libraries.i Note that when multi-transaction signing (signing a block of transactions) is used, the root of the Merkle tree (having transaction IDs as leaves) is actually signed and thus txId refers to this root and not a specific transaction. Method Summary. All Methods Instance Methods Concrete Methods ; Modifier and Type Method and Description; SecureHash: component1 transaction. SignatureMetadata.

Merkle path, sized proofs consisting of a merkle path to

merkle-tree-stream. A stream that generates a merkle tree based on the incoming data. A hash tree or merkle tree is a tree in which every leaf node is labelled with the hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. Merkle trees in Dat are specialized flat trees that. See Disclosures to your signature chain, the Merkle tree, and the Bitcoin blockchain below for information on how we treat this data. Keybase's website does not serve any 3rd party hosted JavaScript. While we do use care to protect your information, no data transmission over the Internet or other network can be guaranteed to be 100% secure. As a result, we cannot and do not. Named for the native poplar tree, this trail passes Merkle's champion yellow poplar which measures 116 feet tall and nearly 17 feet in circumference. Poplar Springs is 3.0 miles long and is rated easy/moderate. The trail is blazed red. Mounds Trail. This is a hilly trail that follows along the top of a ravine and offers views of Lookout Creek. Its most unique features are the large, man made. Likewise, Merkle Trees avoid the need to blindly trust logs: if a log attempts to show different things to different people, this can be efficiently detected by comparing tree roots and consistency proofs. Similarly, other misbehaviors of any log (e.g., issuing signed timestamps for certificates they then don't log) can be efficiently detected and proved to the world at large. These logs can.

The encoding works as follows: we traverse the tree in depth-first order, storing a bit for each traversed node, signifying whether the node is the parent of at least one matched leaf txid (or a matched txid itself). In case we are at the leaf level, or this bit is 0, its merkle node hash is stored, and its children are not explored further. Otherwise, no hash is stored, but we recurse into. Merkle tree authentication of HTTP responses. Pages 1182-1183. Previous Chapter Next Chapter. ABSTRACT. We propose extensions to existing web protocols that allow proofs of authenticity of HTTP server responses, whether or not the HTTP server is under the control of the publisher. These extensions protect users from content that may be substituted by malicious servers, and therefore have. This recommendation specifies two algorithms that can be used to generate a digital signature, both of which are stateful hash-based signature schemes: the Leighton-Micali Signature (LMS) system and the eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme (XMSS), along with their multi-tree variants, the Hierarchical Signature System (HSS) and multi-tree XMSS (XMSSMT) How to Mine Ethereum. Disclosure: Mining metrics are calculated based on a network hash rate of 23,945 GH/s and using a ETC - USD exchange rate of 1 ETC = $ 50.56 . These figures vary based on the total network hash rate and on the ETC to USD conversion rate. Block reward is fixed at 3.104 ETC

ML-MBT: Multi-Level Merkle B+ Tree

Genealogy for Oscar Clarence Merkle (1897 - 1972) family tree on Geni, with over 225 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. People Projects Discussions Surname The Merkle family name was found in the USA, the UK, Canada, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920. The most Merkle families were found in the USA in 1880. In 1840 there were 19 Merkle families living in Pennsylvania. This was about 83% of all the recorded Merkle's in the USA. Pennsylvania had the highest population of Merkle families in 1840. Use census records and voter lists to see where. Stream Linus Lindgren by MERKLE TREE SOUND CLOUD from desktop or your mobile devic

The Bitcoin blockchain is a hash chain of blocksDigital Signature Requirements - Digital Signature | CourseraNEVERFEAR
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