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ESG investing thesis

State Street Global Advisors (SSGA). Once seen as vague and peripheral, ESG is progressively becoming a core tenet to the risk-return equation and to goals-based investing. Historically, investors.. Therefore, the principal objective of this thesis is to explore three dimensions of ESG investing, namely corporate environmental responsibility, renewable energy, and ESG disclosure quality. The research questions address issues relating to pension funds' investment decisions and legal obstacles resulting from utilising ESG information, financial return and risk implications of investing in renewable energy, substitutability of renewable energy for fossil fuel investments, and the effects.

An Evolving Investment Thesis for ESG Institutional Investo

As outlined by the PRI (2015), ESG investing is an investment approach that aims for better risk management and higher sustainability in long-term returns. 1 For example, the Exxon Valdez (1989) andDeepwater Horizon oil spills2010) While the demand for ESG information is cranking up, this subject matter shouldn't be considered anything new for companies, added Rafferty. 'Sustainability reporting is 20 years old,' he pointed out. 'Governance, the G in ESG, has been an issue since public companies became public companies. And the E and S have to do with license to operate, so businesses have been managing these components of their successful operations for my entire career. It's now that there is a.

Alternative approaches in ESG investing : four essays on

  1. ESG investing has evolved from socially responsible investment philosophies into a distinct form of responsible investing. While earlier approaches used exclusionary screening and value judgments to shape their investment decisions, ESG investing has been spurred by shifts in demand from across th
  2. community investing. ESG is the most common part and involves screening firms on environmental, social and governance standards. There are two ways of screening; negative and positive. Negative screening excludes firms involved in sin activities such as tobacco, alcohol, nuclear power and weapons from an investors' universe. Positive screening ranks firms based on ESG criteria and.
  3. ished the investment thesis of several companies and resulted in the sale of (or decision not to invest in) a company's securities
  4. Q: What is ESG investing? A: ESG Investing - a term that is often used synonymously with sustainable investing, socially responsible investing (SRI) or mission-related investing - can be defined as the consideration of ESG factors alongside performance factors in the investment decision-making process

reflect an SRI or ESG approach and may not be truly indicative of the degree to which socially investing parameters are being followed (Lee, Humphrey, Benson, & Ahn 2010). Given the general contiguity of the ESG and SRI terms in the mutual fund investing universe, this thesis defined SRI to include ESG-related investing activities Integrating ESG into investment decisions has increased in importance for many investors as more research shows its implications on risk and return (Henriksson, Livnat, Pfeifer, & Stumpp, 2019; Khan, 2019; Renneboog, Ter Horst, & Zhang, 2008). Indeed, mainstream investors' motivation to use ESG information is mostly drive

The Effect of ESG Investing on Stock Returns and Ris

  1. The success of investing through environmental, social and governance factors (ESG) is in the numbers. Over the last decade, the MSCI Emerging Markets ESG Leaders Index, which tracks companies with high performance in ESG metrics relative to their peers, outshone the broader MSCI Emerging Markets Index, with a 14.5 percent annualised returns versus 10.7 percent, according to data from indexing firm MSCI
  2. Factor investing and ESG: the pictet model. Corsini, Filippo (A.A. 2017/2018) Factor investing and ESG: the pictet model. Tesi di Laurea in Equity markets and alternative investments, Luiss Guido Carli, relatore Marco Morelli, pp. 68. [Master's Degree Thesis
  3. ing the performance of S&P 500 quintile stock portfolios formed on the ESG scores. Second, by testing whether the performance of the highly rated ESG portfolios can be enhanced by adding Value Investing Principles.
  4. Practically, this thesis gives insights in the benefits of ESG factors to active investors, who are interested in short-term benefits. The findings may show, for example, higher returns or lower risk for ESG investments around short-term events, which are in this case earnings announcements. Additionally, this thesis gives insights to firm manager
  5. The purpose of this thesis is to study and evaluate the public attitude and reactions to reportages of environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) related corporate misbehavior as they externalize in changes in the investors‟ investing behavior. Mor
  6. ated by mid- and large-cap developed market equities, but investors have a growing appetite to add other asset classes to complete balanced portfolios. Last year, Northern Trust Asset Management launched a series of fixed income strategies with an ESG-oriented investment process

How to integrate ESG issues into the investment thesis

Environment, Social, and Governance (ESG) Investing is an investing approach that considers all the factors in its name during the investing process. Before moving capital, the investor (or manager) will thoroughly look at the company's stance toward 1.) the environment 2.) people and 3.) governance to see how those will impact the investment performance. While there is a strong ethical component, as well as a drive to do good, the main objective of ESG is to use these criteria to. Furthermore, based on the results, this thesis concludes that Nordic investors' interests are in line with the society's interests as they do value ESG ratings when investing The investment thesis behind ESG investing is that companies that have high ESG standards are more likely to outperform their peers over time. The support for this thesis lies in how the investments are chosen. The idea is that ESG is a filter that is applied to investments that are already perceived as offering strong fundamentals Within this segment, some firms take an explicit ESG approach (when their thesis centers specifically on impact investing, ESG investing, or SDG investing), while others take what we call an implicit ESG approach (when their thesis does not explicitly specify impact investing but nonetheless centers on sustainability, the environment, or underrepresented founders) What Matters in ESG Investing? Exploring the underlying drivers of ESG and their impact on abnormal returns Master's Thesis Copenhagen Business School Supervisor: Finn Lauritzen Date of submission: 15th of May 2019 Tobias Qwist Fenger - 93701 M.Sc. Finance & Strategic Management Jakob Ravn Hansen - 91875 M.Sc. Applied Economics & Finance . Jakob Ravn Hansen May 15, 2019 Tobias Qwist Fenger 1.

Master Thesis Do sustainable firms induce sustainable

ESG Investing; Does it come with a Financial Sacrifice? Tenggren, Charlie LU and Carlsson, Jesper LU NEKH02 20202 and Governance aspects referred to as ESG. The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to examine the potential disparity in performance and investment risk between sustainable and non-sustainable funds in terms of ESG-scores. Their differences are evaluated by utilizing a portfolio. This thesis's central purpose is to examine how to circumvent some of this embedded volatility through sustainable investment strategies in ETFs. The definition of sustainable and green investments is made based on MSCIs ESG-rating. The purpose of the problem question is to make rational investing in ETFs more applicable for the private investor Davanzo, Tristan. (2021, April 8). From stockholder to stakeholder: is ESG investing profitable?.Finance & Investments.Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2105/5662 reflect an SRI or ESG approach and may not be truly indicative of the degree to which socially investing parameters are being followed (Lee, Humphrey, Benson, & Ahn 2010). Given the general contiguity of the ESG and SRI terms in the mutual fund investing universe, this thesis defined SRI to include ESG-related investing activities

ESG Focused ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance) initiatives make up 1 out of every 3 investment dollars in today's world. The ESG movement is overtaking boardrooms as executives realize that they have a responsibility to make ethical and sustainable investments that make all stakeholders excited about the company's impact and future The above insights will help the family office create a well-defined investment policy statement or impact investing thesis.These will then help to dictate the types of opportunities to consider. With ESG, the environmental, social, and governance factors offer additional ways to view the investment and its potential, however an intention to produce measurable good may be strong, but it is not an absolute like it is with impact investing. ESG allows investors to better screen for companies that are adapting to the needs of the present and the future. It takes into consideration a. sustainable investing teams and ESG product and service offerings. Some of them, like UBS Asset Management, are even designing proprietary ESG rating methodologies for assessing environmental, social and governance performance. The financial industry is also represented much more than ever before in sustainable finance-related conferences. For example, at the Building Bridges Summit organized.

Responsible Impact Investing - Dr. Ingeborg Schumacher-Hummel Masterarbeit zur Integration von Nachhaltigkeitskriterien im Anlage-Beratungsprozess Ausgangslage: I) In vielen empirischen Analysen wird deutlich, dass das Interesse von Privatkunden an nachhaltigen Anlagen wesentlich höher ist als der aktuelle Marktanteil: Wenn Kunden explizit nach ihrem Interesse an ESG-Kriterien bzw. der. Impact Investing, ESG, sustainable economy, sustainable development, inclusive workplace. Home. About Us. Approach. Invest with Us. Our Impact. New & Views. Contact. More. Our Investment Thesis . At Nia Impact Capital, we invest in what matters. Nia Founder Kristin Hull started the firm to bring Impact Investing to the public markets. We invest in those companies whose very primary reason for.

In this way, they attempted to determine the extent to which ESG data can add value to any investment approach, regardless of preferences towards sustainable investing. The authors report an unequivocally positive contribution to risk-adjusted returns when using a 10% best-in-class ESG screening approach (one that effectively removes companies with the lowest 10% of ESG rankings), both. Student thesis: Master thesis. Abstract. As the global assets under management considering sustainable investment criteria steadily increases, new ESG investment strategies emerge aiming for the generation of alpha and outperforming the benchmark. One of these strategies is the ESG Momentum strategy, building on the assumption of a positive relationship between the improvement of a firm's. This research allows our investment professionals access to in depth ESG analysis on over 7,000 companies globally helping shape our view of the risk-reward opportunity when investing in them. To the extent research is available, our investment team formally documents its consideration of ESG risk and reward in conjunction with the overall investment thesis taking into account all economic and.

chief investment officers, ESG leaders, investment managers, and others at a range of investment funds, about their experiences with sustainable investing: how they got started, what practices they follow, what challenges they encountered, how they resolved them, and how they have enhanced their sustainable investing approaches over time. Sustainable investing takes off and pays off Once a. Outperformance & popularity. As it turns out, ESG investing outperforms many other forms of investing in the stock market. Among U.S.-based, ESG-focused index funds surveyed in Q1 2020, 10 out of. Beyond ESG: Investing Behind Business Models and Transitions Integral to Solving Global Problems. Integration of ESG-related factors is broadly applicable across all companies. In ValueAct's experience, there is also an opportunity for institutional investors to identify and invest behind companies where sustainability is at the center of the investment thesis, or whose business models are. In this thesis, studies with regards to ESG and SRI will be looked upon, but not studies that relate to impact investing. The thesis is structured as follows. The first chapter is the introduction, and the second chapter discusses the related literature which has three segments. The first segment is about the difference between stock performance during non-crisis times. The second segment is. Technology | Innovation | ESG Investing . Home; About Us; Newsletter; Advertise; Contact Us; Content, Media, Streaming, Technology January 23, 2020. Netflix's U.S. Growth Is Slowing. But Morgan Stanley Remains Bullish. January 23, 2020 - Netflix disappointed some Wall Street analysts on Tuesday, announcing lower guidance for the next quarter and lower than expected U.S. subscription pick.

ESG rating linked to outperformance during pandemic

In 2019, we published our Morgan Stanley Investment Management (MSIM) Fixed Income ESG and Sovereign Fixed Income Investing: A Better Way approach. We highlighted our thesis that countries' sustainability performance should be evaluated in the context of their stage of development While our investment thesis is heavily predicated upon a near-term vaccine and a reversion back to the mean with elective surgeries, one must acknowledge that the company could underperform if. Sophie Thurner, ESG product specialist, iShares Sustainable Products at BlackRock. We believe sustainability risk and climate risk are investment risks, and that integrating sustainability can help investors build more resilient portfolios and achieve better long-term risk-adjusted returns. Investment conviction. Our investment conviction is built on a two-part investment thesis. Thesis 1. of the fund's investment thesis to respond to investors' objectives, accomplish ESG-related outcomes, and pursue investment returns. Not every fund manager incorporates ESG factors in the same manner; in fact, there are a range of qualitative and quantitative approaches for embedding ESG analysis across investing strategies, spanning asset classes and active-to-passive strategies. As. To adequately incorporate these considerations into a portfolio, smart investors determine their own ESG thesis and analyze a wide variety of information and data sources for investment fit—and profit opportunities. ESG-based investment theses are gaining adherents because the ESG lens can provide a more complete picture of the risk profile and growth potential of the companies. It gives.

Swipe to invest: the story behind millennials and ESG

Impact Investing and ESG. A Smarter World Works Better. Capital markets can power and scale social progress. That's why GLG works with clients across investment strategies to maximize financial and social returns. We help quantify the long-term value that investments can create for a range of stakeholders - including customers, employees, and communities. GLG facilitates Environmental. With ESG integration, funds seek to enhance their financial performance by analyzing material ESG considerations along with other material risks. With sustainable investing, funds use ESG analysis as a significant part of their investment thesis to meet investors' objectives, while seeking financial returns CERTIFICATE IN ESG INVESTING SPECIMEN PAPER Version 1: Tested from 2 September 2019 Key Information Number of questions 100 Time allowed 2 hours 20 minutes Target pass mark The pass mark of the exam is still to be set, depending on pilot exam results. However, it is anticipated that it will likely fall between 60% and 70%. We therefore recommend that candidates should aim to achieve 75% - 80%. In recent years, a growing number of investors have begun to incorporate ESG factors into their traditional investment processes, based on the underlying thesis that ESG factors can have a material impact on financial risk and return. Consequently, sustainable investing has evolved from its early focus on restricting investments and divestiture to one that also incorporates sustainability. ESG, as a factor in investment decision making, was ethics-based a decade back but is currently considered a material risk (opportunity too). Easier said than done! The real question from a practitioner is how to integrate ESG into investment decision-making. The corporates in developed countries, particularly in Europe, have started disclosing useful information for investment decision-making.

The rise of ESG: Investing opportunities in emerging

Concinnity Advisors, LP is a Registered Investment Adviser (RIA) founded on the belief that companies maximize their capacity to create wealth by tending to the interdependent needs of multiple stakeholders, (i.e., customers, employees, communities and suppliers). We believe companies that adopt this multi-stakeholder operating system (MsOS. Sustainable Investing (ESG)Sustainable Investing (ESG) At TDAM, sustainability is a long-term investment. View TDAM's Sustainable Investing Approach Our firm's core investment thesis involves an integrated engagement approach to ESG factors. As investors in an array of investment classes, we play a significant role in positively influencing ESG improvement; we will not abdicate this. As ESG research and analytics improve, investors have greater insights into potential risks and opportunities. Blue chip institutional investors like Goldman Sachs and BlackRock have built ESG into their investment theses and valuation models. ESG has become a mainstream business issue. Socially responsible investing, which first emerged in the 1960s as a niche asset class, is now a fixture in.

Will Variable Dividends Take Over Energy ETFs?

Factor investing and ESG: the pictet model - LuissThesi

Anti ESG | method41

Maximizing the ESG impact and returns With the increasing awareness that material ESG factors can be tied to a company's long-term growth potential, more investors are looking to integrate sustainability insights into their investment process Capitalism, Socialism and ESG | Rupert arwall 2 ESG is sweeping the investment world. Its advocates claim that ESG will both deliver superior investor returns and change the world for the better

But Kirin should not steer the considerable momentum of ESG-themed investment to a thesis that an exit from Myanmar is the only right option, while remaining in place and generating economic. Preparing our companies for new climate-related financial disclosures: 2021, 2022 and the coming years' key dates and policies. Applying taxonomy and ESG principles in new investment strategies and how to reinforce, support and validate more sustainable financing claims. Martina Macpherson, FICRS

THE WATER INVESTMENT THESIS The era of cheap water is over, the era of water innovation is just beginning. Water is the only commodity in the world that is essential for life and unsubstitutable at any price. Nevertheless, the earth's freshwater supply is now facing a perfect storm of secular trends, including a rising population [ This thesis is directly tied to an investee company's ability to contribute towards the attainment of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. It is, with three years in operation, in the relatively early stages of delivering real-world impact success, says Pomroy. In forming this thesis, we look at a company's supply chain, including its relationships with and influence over its supply. 3) Emerging successful investment theses 24-42 a. Overview of climate-change investing landscape 26-27 b. Archetypical investment theses 28-30 c. Detailed fund analyses 31-42 Section II Building a climate change pitchbook 43-66 4) Clear focus: Determining an investment thesis 44-52 a. Positioning approach & identifying attractive segments 45-47. ESG investing, often referred to as sustainable or socially responsible investing, has turned a corner. According to a recent McKinsey report, more than a quarter of assets under management are now invested with the thesis that ESG can affect a company's financial performance. Green bonds alone are projected to grow into a trillion dollar market

MASTER THESIS FINANCE - Tilburg Universit

Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) investing has become an increasingly popular trend. According to a recent report by Morningstar, net ESG fund inflows reached $51.1 billion in 2020 (a. INVESTMENT THESIS; TRACK RECORD; NEWSROOM; CONTACT. MAIL; CALL US; FR; WELCOME maher 2020-10-09T14:41:48+01:00. Growth Equity for European B2B Technology Companies. Move Capital actively promotes a sustainable European Technology ecosystem with a rigorous ESG approach. Growth Equity for European B2B Technology Companies . Move Capital actively promotes a sustainable European Technology.

Investing Responsibly: ESG Assessment Case Studies. In this installment of our Investing Responsibly series, Anthesis Group's Phil Harrison discusses the role of ESG factors in three case studies. The following three case studies demonstrate how ESG factors can influence investment decision-making, and potentially the overall return of. investment thesis - Building upon our deep renewable energy and decarbonization presence with a number of notable new platform investments - Enhancing our portfolio company monitoring by creating formalized ESG scorecards to measure performance and identify areas for improvement Analyzing climate change risk and opportunities - Continuing to focus on governance and compliance monitoring. ESG considerations across our full investment platform. This means that for all of BlackRock's actively-managed Defining a value-based investment thesis for sustainability integration 2. Understanding baseline practices and capabilities 3. Delivering on our investment thesis, with a focus on a structured investment process, developing financially relevant sustainability insights, and. ESG Investing & Financial Performance. The evidence is compelling: sustainable investing can be a clear win for both investors and for companies. We call this doing well while doing good. 100% of the academic studies agree that companies with high ratigns for CSR and ESG factors have a lower cost of capital in terms of debt and equity

10 ESG Investing Themes for 2020

A Guide to ESG Investing — The Conscious Investo

This thesis will examine the current ESG investing landscape, more specifically what investors are demanding. For the most part, investors want reliable data that they can use in their investment strategies, however, the ESG information available is insufficient, unreliable, and incomparable as ESG reporting and disclosures are not currently mandated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. To help investors capitalize on opportunities in sustainable investing, this article offers insights on how to integrate ESG factors with the investment process—from defining the objectives and approach for an investment strategy, through developing the tools and organizational resources required to manage investments, to managing performance and reporting outcomes to stakeholders. It is.

Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Investing

Sustainable investing—a category that includes ESG investing, in which ESG considerations are an overlay to the pursuit of financial whether there's an opportunity to align the business with the sustainable transition that could form part of the investment thesis and truly unlock potential sustainable value creation. If ignored, sustainability issues can erode value, hinder growth and. I've been thinking about ESG funds since 2007. In fact, I wrote my senior thesis on socially-responsible stock indexes. I desperately want to believe that inclusion in a socially-screened investment fund can improve a stock's performance and that directing investment to some firms over others, can reduce carbon emissions, improve working conditions, and create a more equitable world Being transparent about our approach to and the application of ESG criteria into our investment thesis. Since investors should consider material information relevant to the investment case in making their decisions, we view integration of ESG criteria as both a natural extension and important component of best-in-class investing. This Statement represents the considerations our investment. ESG inclusionary investing: Funds with this type of investment approach generally seek positive sustainability-related outcomes by pursuing an investing thesis focusing on portfolios that fundamentally or systematically tilt a portfolio based on ESG factors alongside financial return This thesis does not provide a definitive answer on whether ESG investors can benefit from incorporating Value investing principles in their portfolio selection procedure. The results suggest that ESG investors can expect a slight improvement in their investment performance when ESG portfolios are double sorted on value ratios. In the sample of.

Will Water, Agriculture, and Energy Become MainstreamHuman cost of autonomous car development sinks ESG scores

Funds that have a sustainable investment strategies use ESG analysis as a significant part of the fund's investment thesis to meet investors' objectives while seeking financial returns. A single fund may integrate analysis of ESG considerations and may pursue one or more sustainable investing strategies. Some funds integrate analysis of ESG factors, others use one or more sustainable. Other new ESG funds have been formed by groups with few ties to established activist firms. Boards need to prepare for this new set of players and their agendas, paying close attention to their companies' ESG profiles and ratings, and not just the financial vulnerabilities that traditionally attracted activists' attention. The lines between activists and other investors are blurring. A. East Capital's Karine Hirn recently described an alternative approach to ESG investing in emerging markets. It involves actively searching for companies that are in the early stages of ESG integration. They would not pass through ESG screening today, but the investment thesis maintains that the efforts toward improving their ESG metrics are bound to boost the companies' performance. Madhu.

Investing in Green Technology Companies and Stocks - Nanalyze

Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) investing is gaining considerable momentum, and issuers of exchange traded funds are meeting surging demand with a steady stream of new supply. An expanding roster of ESG choices is beneficial for investors b ETFs & Funds. 6 mins Gamers and Investors Remain Devoted to the ESPO Thesis ETF Trends 24 mins Survey: Hedge Fund Managers Aren't Worried. The growth of corporate disclosure on ESG issues will offer new opportunities to activist investors as they search for evidence of underperformance, according to a recently released white paper. Activists are increasingly using ESG issues as a focus area in their engagement with issuers, but it can be hard to build a thesis when there is a lack of data showing how companies stack up against peers Investment: Ensure ESG risks are captured in the investment valuation thesis and priced accordingly. Where possible, we use our share voting rights to influence how the companies in which we invest manage ESG risks and outcomes. We use the recommendations of the Australian Council of Superannuation Investors (ACSI) as a guide when voting at shareholder meetings. By voting in line with ACSI. SUSTAINABLE INVESTMENT THESIS In a transforming world, investing sustainably is increasingly key both to creating a better future, and to delivering financial reward. Aligning investing to reflect sustainable themes offers a catalyst for growth - for instance through meeting increased demand for renewable energy, or the growing appetite for healthier food. Furthermore, at a global level, the.

Investment decision-making processes render ESG risks fungible and obscures those differences, and the crucial imbalance of power and of consequences for the at-risk (workers) and the risk-capable (firms and investors). ESG investing leverages connections between disparate social and economic actors through the frame of financial risk, in a way that is often stripped of its lived reality Sustainable Investing Events Highlight Kofi Annan's Legacy. One of the late Kofi Annan's legacies, largely overlooked in the tributes marking his recent passing, is sustainable investing. As. A good indication of growing investor confidence in impact and climate change investing has been the ability of individual ESG funds to progress to round 2 fundraising. For example, TPG's Rise Fund II is targeting US$2.5 billion (with US$1.7 billion secured as of late 2019) and LeapFrog is closing its third fund at US$700 million (with US$100 million oversubscribed assets under management) ESG investing is on the rise in Asia, where regional governments have stepped up disclosure requirements amid a drive toward sustainability. We believe that ESG integration can help identify high-quality, forward-thinking businesses for investment and manage downside risks in credit portfolios. For an investment to earn a position in our Asia Credit Bond Strategy, it should satisfy a three. For clients who need assistance evolving their ESG management programs, Bridge House Advisors facilitates a process that starts with understanding the firm's history, culture, investment thesis and LP base and concludes with a practical and fit-for-purpose ESG management program that includes policy, an integrated approach to pre-investment ESG due diligence, metrics and monitoring at the.

Video: Aviva Investors on multi-asset investing - FundBI Open: A Comparison of Norwegian Business Cycle Indicators

MSCI/ESG. MSCI (formerly KLD Research & Analytics, Inc.) is the leading authority on social research for institutional investors and is well-known for its research, benchmarks, compliance, and consulting services. MSCI ESG Research (STATS) is an annual data set of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) ratings of publicly traded companies Investors today have more options than just stocks. From Real Estate Investing to ESG; use our Investing Strategy Guide to find the investment that fits your style. The Dow Jones Real Estate Index is down about 15% in the past year. As the economy rebounds in the coming years, real estate investment opportunities will abound Covering the rise of ESG and Sustainable Investing as a thesis and why this is happening. Regulatory drivers and reporting drivers too + increasing investor appetite. ESG investing in the real world; NOTES FOR ATTENDEES. This webinar will be recorded and available following the event on a web link - this will be sent to those who have registered in order to watch at their leisure if they are. ESG PERCEPTION STUDIES. We provide quality, in-depth perception studies executed by a senior advisor or analyst and overseen by our ESG team. CMi2i will typically ask investors about their preferred ESG reporting frameworks, preferred ESG rating services, ESG investment approach, perceptions of the company's reporting & messaging, and thoughts regarding areas for improvement Forbes - 2025, ESG investing may account for $53 trillion, or 1/3, of assets under management. Here are four key questions for combatting the greenwashing this much money will inevitably encourage. • 6

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